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Missouri pro-child labor State Senator Jane Cunningham (R-Chesterfield) (Missouri Legislature)

There is news to report on the Missouri proposal to allow children under the age of 14 to work up to 80 hours per week and to specifically allow them to work after hours in hotels and motels: The bill is now dead. It turns out that the measure received poor publicity for some reason – perhaps it was the part that would have prevented the state from investigating the working conditions of the children.

In other news, South Carolina Tea Party Governor Nicky Haley has had a bad week. People are now catching on that the Tea Party intends to privatize all public entities, and that privatization will only mean further disenfranchisement for normal people. Things are no different in South Carolina, where Nicky Haley is planning to attack pensions and benefits for state workers just like everywhere else that happens to have Tea Party governors.

Haley also planned to grade legislators – a bald attempt to pressure legislators to agree with her.

One thing that she is doing well is that she is promoting a bill that would require greater financial transparency for office holders. According to The State, the law would require:

Requiring more financial disclosure from lawmakers. Haley is backing a Senate bill that would require lawmakers — and her —to disclose to the State Ethics Commission any gifts or services that they get from companies that have contracts with the state and from groups that lobby lawmakers. The bill also would require lawmakers to disclose any contractual work they have done for companies that employ appointed members of state boards or commissions.

But there is a problem. The State also reports:

Haley’s tax returns, released during last year’s campaign, show she earned nearly $43,000 between 2007 and 2009 from a never-before-then-disclosed contractual job with Midlands engineering company, Wilbur Smith. Both the company, which has done work for the state, and Haley declined to say what she did to earn that money.

Another scandal swirling in South Carolina occurred when she removed the largest donor in the history of the University of South Carolina from its Board of Trustees. She replaced her with Tommy Cofield, a major donor to her personal gubernatorial campaign.

The Governor of South Carolina is now also taking heat for lying on a job application to earn more pay. Read more on that here. This all begs the question – why are people allowing crooks to run for office? It is not as if the Lieutenant Governor is any better – Ken Ard has just been charged with 92 ethics violations… something about using campaign funds for personal expenses or something illegal like that. Good grief!

But the Tea Party Moral Compass Award for the past week has to go to Kansas State Representative Virgil Peck (R-Tyro), who during a committee meeting that discussed culling the state’s wild pig population by shooting them from helicopters said that the same plan would be a good way to control illegal immigration. He said that he was joking, but judge for yourself on the sound clip at this link.

Welcome to the wonderful world of compassionate conservatism.

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Mercury (MESSENGER)

Mercury is the closest planet to the sun and it is also the smallest planet in the solar system, now that Pluto has been demoted. Until now, Mercury has been the only major body in the inner solar system that has not been orbited by human spacecraft. As of Thursday, NASA’s MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging probe, aka MESSENGER, (what an acronym!) successfully entered orbit around the planet, after two flybys of Venus, 3 of Mercury and one of Earth itself. There, it will map the surface and study the environment around Mercury. There are a number of mysteries surrounding the planet, including why it has such a large iron core. There are also a number of questions about strange and bizarre terrain found opposite the planet from a huge 1,550 km-wide impact basin.

Mercury’s next visitors will arrive as part of a joint European Space Agency and Japanese Space Agency project, BepiColombo, that is expected to reach the planet in 2019.

Wikipedia: Mercury

Minnesota State Capitol (rbw)

Good news and bad news: Bad news first

As part of the nationwide Republican efforts to undermine public education, Minnesota House Member Pat Garofalo (R-Farmington), who is Chair of the House Education Committee, plans to eliminate state funding for programs that promote racial integration in Minnesota schools. The programs, which in Minneapolis provide some $480 per year per student, are intended to close the achievement gap between racial minorities in the classroom. Worse, Garofalo’s plan would re-work the formulae used to determine funding levels in state schools. The results could end up taking money from under-funded schools and give that money to schools that are already well-funded.

MinnPost reports:

Speaker Kurt Zellers said House Republicans are working “hand in glove” on both the state’s $5 billion budget deficit and on a “fundamental change in how we deliver government.”

Republicans highlighted efforts to streamline state agencies, improve the use of technology and consolidate operations, but the only specific figure was a $172 million savings from a proposed 15 percent state workforce reduction.

Indeed. The Republicans in Minnesota, just as in many other states are seeking to end government’s ability to deliver services.

In fact, the Minnesota State Government has published its bi-annual Tax Incidence Report. It reports a heavily regressive tax burden within the state, even when compared with historical averages. According to the report, the effective state tax rate for a member of the top 1% of income earners within Minnesota was 9.7% in 2008. Meanwhile, the effective tax rate for the poor is 32.5%. Hence, the wealthy are not paying their fair share in taxes.

Yet, the Republicans are also looking to slash funding for the state Medicaid programs, especially programs geared toward the poor and the infirm.

But that is not all. The Republicans are waging all-out war on the poor. Representatitve Kurt Daudt (R-Crown) has introduced a bill that would prevent those who use government assistance EBT cards from withdrawing cash on the cards at ATMs above – get this – $20 per month. The bill, H.F. 171, would also create problems because one of the reasons that people are now able to use the cards to withdraw cash is that many stores are not connected to the state EBT system.

$20 is not even enough to purchase a Minnesota Drivers license (current price – $43). And there are already Republican proposals to require a photo-ID in voting.

In addition, the bill appears to make it illegal for people under the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP) to carry cash at all! Nor could they put any money into a checking or savings account.

Crooks and Liars relates testimony of Angel Buechner, from the Welfare Rights Committee, referring to the efforts of the Republicans on the House Health and Human Services Reform Committee:

“We’ll leave you with this. It is not right to punish a whole group because of the supposed actions of a few. You in this room could have a pretty rough time if that was the case. It is not right to stigmatize and dehumanize women living the hard life of trying to raise children while living 60% below the poverty level. It is not right to use racist, bumper-sticker hate to inflict human misery for political gain.”

Where would the sort of thinking that would make it illegal for poor people to carry cash come from? Well, let’s take a look at a Republican strategy meeting that too place at the conservative Hudson Institute to find out. There, National Review editor Kate O’Beirne suggested that the parents of children on school lunch programs were “child abusers”, because they can not afford a meal. “What poor excuse for a parent can not put together a bowl of cereal and a banana?” as she puts it. She argues that despite the fact that more and more families across the nation are finding it difficult to make ends meet (due to conservative economic policies), that there is no national solution to the problem because it is not “in Washington’s interests” to solve the crisis of child poverty. Perhaps that is because for her, national interests are solely geared toward tax cuts for the wealthy and wars abroad to fight over resources.

Republicans discuss public education and decry school lunch programs (Crooks and Liars)

Another panelist at this hearing said that safety in schools could not be guaranteed because, despite the national scope of the problem, it should not fall under the purview of the federal government. Yes, he essentially makes those two very statements one right after the other. That is the sort of callous bastard that is driving the economic and educational policy of the Republican Party right now.

Some good news…

Luckily, the press is beginning to ask some pointed questions, because Republican Party policies are currently being driven by their corporate benefactors who believe that the sole reason for the existence of the government is to load their own coffers. That is precisely why Republicans would begrudge the poor of any money to spend and why they believe that school lunch programs as a waste of money, despite the fact that they have been shown to improve student performance and help to increase upward mobility in society. There is a way to prevent corporations from holding such a grip on the political process that the process would realign itself to work against the interests of citizens.

Minnesota Democrats have introduced bills in the House and the Senate to rectify the problem. The bills, S.F. 683 and H.F. 914 would amend the Minnesota Constitution to define “person” to mean a “natural person”.

The distinction between “person” and “natural person” is vitally important. British common law has always made a distinction between “natural persons” (meaning people) and “artificial persons” (meaning organizations like churchs, businesses, etc.). Well, the Citizens United decision effectively eliminated the many of those distinctions by allowing corporations to spend an unlimited amount of money on elections. And they did. Now we can see how that has effected the political process. We now have people cutting back on schools so that big companies – already earning record profits – can earn more in tax breaks.

Minnesota is no different in this regard than other parts of the country. A recent article by the Star Tribune highlights the largest lobbying efforts in Saint Paul for 2010. More than $3 million in big business lobbying expenses arose that year and $1.8 million (60%) was due to the Minnesota Chamber of Commerce alone. Big business is trying to buy the political process.

Author Thom Hartmann discusses corporate personhood (The Daily Take, RT)

So be sure to contact your Minnesota State Senators and House Representatives to give support to S.F. 683 and H.F. 914 in order to help the constitutional amendments to come to fruition. You had better believe that they will meet with strong resistance from the Republicans who currently hold majorities in the House and Senate.

Scott Walker at a press conference, February 28th (MinnPost)

Scott Walker’s lie to the Press is exposed

Now that Governor Walker has released thousands of emails that he claimed supported his efforts to strip unions of their collective bargaining rights, we find that Scott Walker harbors an interesting perspective on support. The vast majority of the emails are decidedly against his plan, which indicates that he was lying to the press when he claimed the opposite. Then, after the largest protests to that point, he argued that he was getting even more support, which made the lie even worse. It was therefore predictable that Walker would fail to respond to the Madison Isthmus’Freedom of Information Act request to see the emails. When the Isthmus filed suit, Walker capitulated, but managed to negotiate a settlement in which there would be no allegation of wrongdoing, despite the fact that a breach of the Freedom of Information Act is a violation of federal law. Walker’s office will pay legal fees for the case totalling some $7,000.

So what was the level of support for Walker’s policies? According to the Houston Chronicle, the vast majority of the emails are against. Here is a sample from the Chronicle:

“Your handling of the current situation in Madison is an embarrassment to the people of Wisconsin. You appear to be an ignorant puppet and I am ashamed to have you as governor of the state I call home,” wrote a person who said he lived in Wisconsin and is married to a teacher.

Another email compared him to “maggot puke”. Here is another, posted by the Chronicle:

“WHY ARE YOU TRYING TO TAKE WHAT WE HAVE WORKED SO HARD FOR? WE ALL HAVE FAMILIES AND HAVE CHILDREN OF OUR OWN TO FEED! TIMES ARE HARD ENOUGH WITH THE ECONOMY THE WAY IT IS!”

In Walker’s defense, there were a few letters of support, though they were outnumbered by views opposing him.

Judge blocks anti-union measure

Dane County District Judge Maryann Sumi has blocked a Wisconsin Secretary of State Doug La Follette (who has already held back signing as long as legally possible) from signing the anti-union law signed by Governor Walker last Friday. The judge ruled that the passage of the bill in the state Senate violated the state’s Open Meetings Law, which require 24 hours public notice except in cases of an emergency. Dane County Distrcit Attorney Ismael Ozanne successfully argued that there was no cause for an emergency in the passage of the law.

In her ruling, Judge Sumi said, “Some may wonder how something as minor as failure to (properly) notify the public really stops this bill in its tracks. My answer is, it’s not minor,” referring to the importance of open and fair procedures in government.

The ruling is certain to be met with more legal challenges by the Republicans.
When the Democrats filed for an injunction, they filed with the Dane Country District Attorney as well as with the State Attorney General, J.B. Van Hollen. After this initial ruling by Judge Sumi, the Capitol Times is reporting that Van Hollen will appeal the restraining order against the signing of the anti-collective bargaining bill. But according to the Capitol Times, because the ruling was a “non-final order,” the Attorney General will have to “petition the court for permission to file an appeal.”

Attorney J.B. Van Hollen is a client of the same conservative lobby group, Persuasion Partners, as Governor Walker. Persuasion Partners gained public notoriety when an ex-lobbyist for the group was found to be the mistress of a State Senator, Randy Hopper, who is currently facing recall action. The group also has corporate and third party clients such as Americans for Prosperity, a public advocacy group that is funded by the Koch brothers. That Van Hollen would attempt to defend the anti-union measure should not be considered a surprise.

What can be done? Well… Contact Attorney General Van Hollen to let him know what you think about his defense of stripping collective bargaining rights from workers. Van Hollen can be reached through the Wisconsin Department of Justice here:

Attorney General J.B. Van Hollen
114 East State Capitol
Madison, WI 53707-7857
Phone: (608) 266-1221
Fax: (608) 267-2779

When you contact Van Hollen, remind him that he could be subject to a recall. Here is how to recall J.B. Van Hollen. Defending Wisconsin is a new organization that is already seeking to recall Van Hollen.

Budget Proposal

The next battle in the Wisconsin Legislature will involve Governor Walker’s budget proposal. The plan still includes provisions to sell state-owned power plants in no-bid contracts so that they can become privatized. The state would then purchase power from the plants at a higher cost, which instead of going back to the state would then go to the coffers of a private firm such as Koch Industries.

Other provisions in the budget proposal would violate federal law. Walker is proposing to eliminate municipal stormwater standards to abrogate the Clean Water Act. The provision has been supported across the country by Koch Industries, a major polluter worldwide.

Despite a growing population, the budget would also end growth in the state Medicaid program, by hacking $500 million in spending over the next two years. This would entail dropping up to 50,000 Wisconsin residents from the Medicaid program.

Education, however, takes the biggest hit – nearly $1 billion in cuts – in addition to at to local municipalities. That measure would eviscerate education within the state and it would force a number of schools to close. Even if the budget were not enacted as it currently is, a good deal of damage to the state’s education system has already been done because of Walker’s boorish threats in is handling of the union issue. Teachers have been urgently seeking early retirement in the hopes of receiving the retirement pensions that they were promised in their state contracts before Walker renegs on them.

Keep in mind that the state budget can easily be closed if only the state’s billionaires would pay their taxes.

Here is a link leading to the current budget proposals submitted to the Assembly and the Senate.

Walker on jobs

Jobs continue to leave Wisconsin under Governor Walker, though Walker did recently report that he has brought in a new company, Catalyst Exhibits, Inc., which will be moving to Pleasant Prairie from Illinois. Of course, the state will gain very little from it. A $500,000 gran and $1.25 million in low-interest loans (with an actual value of $750,000) from the state to the company enticed them to enter Wisconsin, but the company will not pay taxes and most of the Illinois workers will simply drive further to work. Paul Stahlberg, the firm’s design manager is a rather solid Republican donor.

More ethics complaints against Scott Walker

The Democrats filed another ethics complaint against Scott Walker on the 17th, stemming from a conversation with Republican strategist Frank Lutz on the day after his infamous phone conversation with a faked “David Koch”. Lutz met with Walker in the Governor’s Office, which is by law off limits to use for political machinations. The complaint argues that Walker is using his office for personal political gain.

Benghazi Cathedral (Libyan Tourism Directory)

Founded as the Greek colony of Ευεσπεριδεσ, or Euesperides, around 525 B.C.E., the city has been under the control of a number of empires since, including the Romans and the Ottomans. At one point, the greek colony was saved by chance while under attack by Libyan tribes in 414 B.C.E. A fleet from Sparta had been en route to Sicily to fight a battle against an Athenian colony there during the Peloponnesian War, but it was blown off course by strong winds. The Spartans helped to drive back the Libyan tribes, rescuing the city.

Today, the city is known as Benghazi is a stronghold for a democratic uprising against Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi and it is now under attack by the dictator. The UN Security Council has agreed to the institution of a no-fly zone over the country, primarily led by France. Will it be too little, too late? Good luck to everyone fighting for democracy everywhere.

More details here. I will report on this later, once more is known.

Mosaic: "Justice" from the Wisconsin State Capitol (rbw)

Last February 17th, Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker claimed that he had received over 8,000 emails regarding his proposal to attack unions in his Budget “Repair” Bill. He also claimed that most of the emails were in favor of his proposal. By the 18th, he claimed to have received over 19,000 emails. The Madison Isthmus, curious about his claims, filed a Freedom of Information Act request to read through the emails. Yet surprisingly, the Governor was not eager to divulge the level of support he had received for his proposals. After Walker’s office failed to respond to the Freedom of Information Act request (a violation of federal law), the Isthmus sued for access to the emails. Yesterday, the Isthmus announced a settlement for the lawsuit. It is one-sided because Walker did not want to go to court for a breech of federal law. The settlement indicates that Scott Walker will release the emails to the Isthmus by Tuesday, March 22 and that the governor’s office will also cover all legal costs. Soon, we will be able to see just how much support he really received.

Rick Snyder, Oligarch (Recall Rick Snyder for Michigan)

Now that Tea Party Michigan Governor Rick Snyder has signed the emergency financial manager bill into law, efforts are now beginning to remove him from office.

His adoption of the anti-constitutional legislation sparked massive protests in Lansing, where more than 6,000 people came to show their disgust for the measure that would allow corporate rule of local municipalities within the state.

Protesters in the Michigan Capitol Gallery (Political Ruminations)

Information regarding the recall efforts can be found at http://www.firericksnyder.org, though only preparations are being made at this point because Snyder will be eligible for recall in July. The Michigan Department of State lists their recall procedures in PDF document online. The number of signatures that the recall efforts will requires is 25% of the total vote count for Governor in the last election – that is about 1,000,000 signatures. According to Fire Rick Snyder for Michigan, the recall petitions will be distributed beginning on July 1st and the group will have 90 days to collect the signatures required for a recall election.

Democratic leaders in the state are also pushing for a constitutional amendment to void the emergency finance manager law. It is unlikely that the Michigan Legislature would vote for such a measure, but state law also gives another route: A constitutional amendment can be brought to the fore via a statewide referendum. According to Scott Walker Watch, such a referendum would require 300,000 votes to place it on the ballot in the next election.

Facebook: Recall Rick Snyder for Michigan

Aerial view of the Red Forest, near Chernobyl, Ukraine, 2007 (Wikipedia)

Formerly called the Wormwood Forest, the region was devastated when Hydrogen gas from the Chernobyl nuclear power planet exploded, releasing radioactive material over a wide region. All of the conifers in the surrounding forest died rapidly and when their needles dried up, their reddish-brown color led to a new name: The Red Forest.

Wildlife returned to the area once humans deserted it, including endangered species. The wildlife has been effected by the radiation as well, leading to a number of mutations in plants especially.

Wikipedia: The Red Forest

The next battle in Wisconsin will involve the Executive Budget itself, as opposed to the Budget “Repair” Bill. Governor Scott Walker is proposing deep cuts to education and the sale of public assets to companies, who will sell their services back to the state.

Click here for the Wisconsin State Legislature homepage.

Here is the Assembly version of the Executive Budget, AB-40.

Here is the Senate version of the Executive Budget, SB-27.

Be sure to peruse the different sections of the bills to see which public assets Governor Walker would like to sell off to corporations!

Oh, and Republican efforts to recall Democrats are just not as popular as Democratic efforts to recall Republicans. I wonder why?

The next battle in Wisconsin will involve the Executive Budget itself, as opposed to the Budget “Repair” Bill. Governor Scott Walker is proposing deep cuts to education and the sale of public assets to companies, who will sell their services back to the state.

Click here for the Wisconsin State Legislature homepage.

Here is the Assembly version of the Executive Budget, AB-40.

Here is the Senate version of the Executive Budget, SB-27.

Be sure to peruse the different sections of the bills to see which public assets Governor Walker would like to sell off to corporations!

Oh, and Republican efforts to recall Democrats are just not as popular as Democratic efforts to recall Republicans. I wonder why?

Wisconsin State Capitol, Madison (rbw)

Last night, while Wisconsin Republicans were being thanked for their services by billionaires in Washington, a couple of thousand people decided to keep them company so that they would feel at home, despite being a long way from home.

Several hundred protesters filled the atrium of the building where the BGR Group Fundraising dinner was held to pay off Wisconsin Republicans and more people spilled down the street – over a thousand people in total. The Nation quotes Russ Feingold:

“Today, Wednesday March 16th, Republican state senators from Wisconsin are in Washington, D.C. attending a big fundraiser at the headquarters of a corporate lobbying firm. That’s less than one week after Republicans rammed through an anti-worker bill that polls showed was heavily opposed by Wisconsinites — but was heavily favored by corporate lobbyists,” said Feingold. “If your senator is Scott Fitzgerald of Juneau, Glenn Grothman of West Bend, or Alberta Darling of River Hills, your senator is at the fundraiser. But no matter where you are in Wisconsin, your interests just got sold out to big corporate interests.”

Protests at BGR Lobbyist dinner for Wisconsin Republicans (Thom Hartmann, YouTube)

Sourcewatch.org gives a list of clients of BGR and this list shows a long line of companies and foreign governments that are interested in energy – especially petrochemical companies. Feel free to boycott each and every one of these companies.

The close ties between petrochemical lobbyists and the Republicans may be why Governor Walker is planning to sell state-owned power plants and why he is trying to ban wind power in Wisconsin. This is a bad move for the state and it will cost jobs as well.

Back in Wisconsin, Dane County District Attorney fIsmael Ozanne filed a complaint to a Dane County Judge to void the Governor’s anti-union measure because the Republicans violated the state Open Meetings law in the process of its approval. Hearings on the issue will continue Friday to discuss in Ozanne’s efforts for an injunction that would bar Secretary of State La Follette from publishing the bill, an act that allows it to become law.

On one last note – a Wisconsin farmer gave a terrific speech at the rallies last Saturday. It is because Wisconsin has a great education system (now under attack) that Wisconsin has eloquent farmers like Tony Schultz.

Farmer Tony Schultz speaking to the protesters in Madison on March 12 (Geof Hermann, YouTube)

The Moon, near 1st Quarter Phase (rbw)

A few friends have brought to my attention an article that was posted by Yahoo News about the ‘Supermoon’. They were asking what I thought about the possibility that because the March 19th Full Moon will be closer to the Earth than at any time during the past 18 years that we will see all sorts of natural disasters. Apparently, an Astrologer, Richard Nolle (who I have already just given more attention than he deserves) believes that the close proximity of the moon will cause the standard panoply of natural disasters – you know – volcanoes, earthquakes, etc. So what is going on? What is this all about?

Well, for starters, there will hardly be chaos outside of the chaos that already takes place in the world without a ‘Supermoon’. In fact, his statement is false on its face: Clearly the world experienced no major chaos due to the Moon 18 years ago when the Moon was closer than it will be Saturday. Nor do Astronomers recognize the term ‘Supermoon’.

What is true is that the Moon does revolve around the Earth in an elliptical orbit. The Moon typically gets as close to the Earth as 363,100 km (225,600 mi) and as far from it as 405,700 km (252,100 mi). The closest point in the orbit is called perigee while the most distant point is call apogee. These two words come from Greek. Gee refers to the Earth while peri- and apo- mean “near” and “far”, respectively.

The perigee and apogee distances that I mentioned above are not actually constant. All of the objects in the solar system are under the influence of the gravity from all of the other objects in the solar system. The Sun and Jupiter have the strongest gravitational fields in the solar system, and they pull and tug at all of the other objects the most. Meanwhile, all of the objects in the solar system are moving relative to one another. The net effect is that all orbits change slightly over time and it just happens that the Moon will be rather close this coming weekend.

Because the Moon is closer to the Earth at perigee, tides on the Earth are higher. This is because the force of gravity from the Moon is inversely proportional to the its distance, squared, and the Moon’s gravitational pull on Earth is a little more 20% stronger at perigee than it is at apogee. This has nothing to do with the Moon being either Full or New, however. Whether the Full Moon happens while the Moon is at perigee, apogee or at some other point in its orbit depends on the relative angle between the Sun, Earth and Moon – and that changes during the course of the year. Right now, during the Moon is near Full Phase when it is at perigee and by Fall, it will be Full right around apogee.

John Bellini, a geophysicist from the U.S. Geological Survey, mentions that even with the slight fluctuation in the gravitational force from the Moon as it revolves around the Earth, that there is little correlation between lunar perigee and earthquakes on the Earth. That is because the forces that cause plate tectonics are not driven by astronomical sources (and certainly not astrological sources!) – they are driven by currents in Earth’s mantle. There is, however, a noticeable difference in the heights of tides.

Now that you are relieved, I will mention that the Full Moon will look about 8% larger than average and it will look about 14% larger than when it is at Apogee Saturday night, so if the weather is permitting, go out and check it out. The Moon will rise around 7:30pm and it will be high in the sky by midnight or 1am on the 20th, so go out and have a look – it will be pretty!

Sunlight enters the main entrance of New Grange once per year on the Winter Solstice (Cyril Byrnes, via The Irish Times)

Happy St. Patrick’s Day! As people all over celebrate all things Irish today, let’s take a look at a place as old as Ireland itself. New Grange is a huge passage mound in County Meath that dates to 3100 – 2900 BCE, during the Neolithic Period (the New Stone Age). It is part of the Brú na Bóinne archaeological complex, an expansive site that predates the Pyramids at Giza. Roughly 150 passage graves survive today in Ireland and 40 of them are locate at Brú na Bóinne.

The site is huge. Some 550 giant slabs, weighing a total of 200,000 tonnes were quarried from the riverside nearby in order to construct it and transported to the site, all under the power of humans and animals. Its use is uncertain, though most people believe it was a tomb. It does have some astronomical significance as well: Each winter solstice, the sun shines directly into the main passage of the monument, illuminating the far wall.

Wikipedia: New Grange

Hearst's New York Journal front page giving a biased, pro-war account of the explosion on the U.S.S. Maine (Wikipedia)

By the end of the 19th century, Cuba had long been seen as a potential acquisition for the expanding United States. By the 1860s, Cuba was importing many of their goods from the United States, who purchased most of the sugar that the island produced. Several attempts to purchase the island from Spain were aborted due to shifting political fortunes within the U.S. Large American companies had a significant financial interest in lowering import tariffs on the sugar, while at the same time the mindset of “Manifest Destiny” – the drive to expand the U.S. throughout the Western Hemisphere – was beginning to take hold.

Enter the media. Beginning in the 1890s, William Randolph Hearst, Joseph Pullitzer, and other members of the media began to conjure and over-report ‘attrocities’ that they claimed had been perpetrated by the Spanish Empire, which was now in steep decline. During this time, Hearst’s New York Journal and Pullitzer’s New York World entered into a fight for readership. They began to employ strategies to gain readership that would later be called “Yellow Journalism”. This included publishing morality plays, showing “nudity” (or the closest Victorian equivalent), and sensational political articles about sometimes fabricated scandals.

During the 1890s, Cuba began a struggle for independence against Spain. Hearst and others could see the potential for readership in the headlines. At one point, World correspondent as James Creelman wrote in his log, he sent a message from Cuba to Hearst saying “There will be no war.” Hearst replied, “Please remain. You furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war.”

Later, the U.S. sent a dreadnought, the U.S.S. Maine to Havana to guard American interests as hostilities broke out there. It sank, likely the result of an internal boiler explosion, but Hearst’s headline was “MAINE EXPLOSION CAUSED BY BOMB OR TORPEDO”. Pullitzer’s Journal screamed, “DESTRUCTION OF THE WAR SHIP MAINE WAS THE WORK OF AN ENEMY” above an illustration of a terrible explosion splitting the ship in two pieces. The headlines helped to begin the Spanish-American War.

Three years later, Ambrose Bierce claimed that Hearst’s reporting led Leon Czolgosz to shoot President McKinley. These claims devastated Hearst’s hopes to become president himself, but he denied it to be the case.

Later, in 1941, Frank Luther Mott gave a description of signs of “Yellow Journalism”:

1. scare headlines in huge print, often of minor news
2. lavish use of pictures, or imaginary drawings
3. use of faked interviews, misleading headlines, pseudo-science, and a parade of false learning from so-called experts
4. emphasis on full-color Sunday supplements, usually with comic strips
5. dramatic sympathy with the “underdog” against the system.

How many are still in use today?

Wikipedia: Yellow Journalism