Category: Pseudo-random Wiki-link


Martin Luther King, Jr. (New York Wold-Telegram & Sun Collection, via The Library of Congress and Wikipedia)

Preaching nonviolence, Martin Luther King Jr. was a key figure in the American Civil Rights movement of the 1960s. His career as a civil rights activist began with the Montgomery Bus Boycott, which began in response to Claudette Colvin, who refused to give her bus seat up to a white man, and later, Rosa Parks who was arrested for not giving up her seat. His famous 1963 “I Have a Dream” speech can be recognized by just about any person who hears it as it is one of the most famous speeches by any American ever. His efforts pressured the U.S. government to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that outlawed most forms of discrimination against African Americans. As a result, he became the youngest winner of the Nobel Peace Prize to date.

After his civil rights victories, Martin Luther King Jr. began to press for worker’s rights. In this efforts, he supported unions and cast a wide net, supporting the rights of white and black workers alike, though his final few days were spent during a rally in Memphis in support of black sanitary workers who were sent home on a day with bad weather, receiving 2 hours of pay, though white workers in the same department were compensated for an entire day. There was a lot of tension in the air and there had been death threats against Reverend King and it was on this day in 1968, that he was assassinated, ostensibly by James Earl Ray, and a good deal of work in the areas of human and workers rights remains to be done.

Wikipedia: Martin Luther King Jr.

A portion of the cover of Orwell's 1984 by Signet (NetCharles.com)

In George Orwell’s book 1984, the Memory Hole was chute, down which workers at the Ministry of Truth would throw old news articles, books and documents that contained evidence contrary to the current (and frequently changing) position of the Government. Articles, documents and books were rewritten so that the frequently changing positions of the Government had always been true in the eyes of the public. The chute led to an incinerator where old evidence was instantly destroyed.

Today’s widespread use of electronic media creates the very real possibility that if data archives were held by only a small number of individuals, they might be able to edit, revise, or delete documents to suit their interests. The effect would be the same as that of the Memory Hole in 1984: the new prevailing opinions of those individuals would always have been true and the evidence to the contrary could disappear without a trace.

The best defense against such a thing would be to ensure many people hold copies of the same documents on personal hard drives – especially when engaging in “cloud computing” whenever the “cloud” is controlled by a major corporation or the government.

Wikipedia: Memory Hole

Testimony before a Senate Inquiry regarding the Teapot Dome affair (Library of Congress, via Wikipedia)

One of the greatest scandals in the history of the U.S. government, the Teapot Dome scandal was an instance of corporate malfeasance during the Roaring Twenties, that decade of deregulation and corporate overreach that gave way to the Great Depression by its end. The Warren Harding Administration was rocked when news came out that the Secretary of the Interior had agreed to lease the Teapot Dome Navy oil reserves to private oil companies after accepting bribes to do so. The companies were given low rates and no-bid contracts (always a worrisome sign). The resulting investigation was filled with intrigue, filled with figures who became stunningly rich in a heartbeat all while important documents went missing, one after the next. It all goes to show that corruption has never been a new idea in government, and a thorough read of the history of this scandal will show just how far the corrupted will go to hide their activities from the public.

Wikipedia: Teapot Dome Scandal

Enron Complex, Houston, TX (Alex, via Wikipedia)

A national debate has been raging for thirty years now regarding whether to allow the national economy o become unregulated. The Government has historically policed corporations in order to ensure that they adhere to laws and regulations that protect the environment and your pocketbook. The current crop of Tea Party Republicans would like to see the Government removed from the process of regulating commerce. Yet, when we take a look at a list of recent Corporate Scandals, we can instantly see why this is a bad idea. It just happens that with corporations required by law to maximize profits, there is very little a corporation is likely to do in order to police itself.

Wikipedia: List of Corporate Scandals

Monks Mound, Cahokia Illinois, the largest Native American earthwork prior to the arrival of Columbus (rbw)

Many Americans lack a sense of history regarding their surroundings. It is often assumed that American history began with the Jamestown colony, but this is largely due to a systematic attempt during the early 20th century to forget the past. In fact, some of the evidence to the contrary can be found in the burial and effigy mounds that dot the American landscape. Thousands of mounds can be found, especially in the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio River systems. The Moundbuilders built these mounds for a large variety of purposes, but did so over a very long period of North American history. The largest mound, Monk’s Mound, was once near the center of a city, Cahokia, with a population of around 20,000 at its height around 1,000 C.E. It is located a few miles north of the intersection of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Modern society could be informed by learning more about its history: Changes to the local climate and environmental degradation (such as deforestation) created an upheaval to Native American cultures by the 13th century C.E. This led to the consequence that subsequent cultures lived in smaller, more widely scattered bands by the time Europeans arrived.

Wikipedia: Mound Builders

Richard Nixon (The National Archives, via Wikipedia)

“But when the President does it, that means that it is not illegal.” That line from the Frost-Nixon interview famously showed the state of American democracy after Richard NIxon.

Elected the 37th President of the United States in 1969, he was re-elected to a second term. His presidency was not without accomplishment, as he signed the Clean Water Act and enhanced the Clean Air Act. He founded the EPA, negotiated a détente with the Soviet Union, ended the Vietnam War and connected with China. And he was a Republican!

Unfortunately, that was not the only lasting impact to Nixon’s presidential legacy. Machtpolitik played a primate role during his administration. Nixon’s soon to be Secretary of State Henry Kissinger was sent to the Paris negotiations to scuttle a peace treaty by suggesting to the South Vietnamese that they would get a better deal under the Republicans. The peace talks failed on the eve of the 1968 election. Kissinger also played a lead role in the CIA-assisted overthrow of democratically elected leader of Chile, plunging that nation into decades of dictatorship under Augusto Pinochet. (He was also involved in other similar activities during the Ford Administration.) Nixon authorized illegal military bombing campaigns and other incursions in Cambodia and Laos as well. His first Vice President, Spiro Agnew, resigned from office after it wsa clear that he had accepted bribes and evaded taxes while he was the governor of Maryland.

Despite all of that, what Richard Nixon is undoubtedly most famous for, however, is the Watergate Scandal, where his cronies bugged the Democratic National Committee Headquarters at the Watergate Hotel. The event lead to Nixon’s resignation and also lead to every subsequent presidential scandal, real or imagined, to end with the syllable “-gate”.

The role of the US president became imperial under Nixon and his neo-conservative acolytes, including Donald Rumsfeld, Paul Wolfowitz, Richard Perle and Dick Cheney carried his torch through the Reagan and Bush administrations. For everyone who wishes the American government would focus on the livelihoods of its citizens, Richard Nixon began the rolling snowball of “Unitary Executive Power” that impinges on democracy today.

Wikipedia: Richard Nixon

The USS Constellation (via Wikipedia)

Relations between the United States and France soured after the French Revolution. Royal France had been a vital ally during the American Revolution, but when the King was toppled, the U.S. stopped repaying its debt to France, claiming that it had owed the debt to the Kingdom of France, not the French Republic. The U.S. angered France even more when it signed a treaty with Britain that included trade items at a time that Britain and France were hostile with one another. By the end of 1796, France began seizing American ships in retribution and thus began one of America’s first undeclared (though still authorized by Congress) wars. Not listed in all history books, the war itself was largely fought at sea and is given any one of several names: the Half-War, the Pirate Wars, the Undeclared War (as if it were the only one), the Undeclared War with France, the Franco-American War, or the Quasi-War.

Wikipedia: The Quasi-War

Mercury (MESSENGER)

Mercury is the closest planet to the sun and it is also the smallest planet in the solar system, now that Pluto has been demoted. Until now, Mercury has been the only major body in the inner solar system that has not been orbited by human spacecraft. As of Thursday, NASA’s MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging probe, aka MESSENGER, (what an acronym!) successfully entered orbit around the planet, after two flybys of Venus, 3 of Mercury and one of Earth itself. There, it will map the surface and study the environment around Mercury. There are a number of mysteries surrounding the planet, including why it has such a large iron core. There are also a number of questions about strange and bizarre terrain found opposite the planet from a huge 1,550 km-wide impact basin.

Mercury’s next visitors will arrive as part of a joint European Space Agency and Japanese Space Agency project, BepiColombo, that is expected to reach the planet in 2019.

Wikipedia: Mercury

Aerial view of the Red Forest, near Chernobyl, Ukraine, 2007 (Wikipedia)

Formerly called the Wormwood Forest, the region was devastated when Hydrogen gas from the Chernobyl nuclear power planet exploded, releasing radioactive material over a wide region. All of the conifers in the surrounding forest died rapidly and when their needles dried up, their reddish-brown color led to a new name: The Red Forest.

Wildlife returned to the area once humans deserted it, including endangered species. The wildlife has been effected by the radiation as well, leading to a number of mutations in plants especially.

Wikipedia: The Red Forest

Sunlight enters the main entrance of New Grange once per year on the Winter Solstice (Cyril Byrnes, via The Irish Times)

Happy St. Patrick’s Day! As people all over celebrate all things Irish today, let’s take a look at a place as old as Ireland itself. New Grange is a huge passage mound in County Meath that dates to 3100 – 2900 BCE, during the Neolithic Period (the New Stone Age). It is part of the Brú na Bóinne archaeological complex, an expansive site that predates the Pyramids at Giza. Roughly 150 passage graves survive today in Ireland and 40 of them are locate at Brú na Bóinne.

The site is huge. Some 550 giant slabs, weighing a total of 200,000 tonnes were quarried from the riverside nearby in order to construct it and transported to the site, all under the power of humans and animals. Its use is uncertain, though most people believe it was a tomb. It does have some astronomical significance as well: Each winter solstice, the sun shines directly into the main passage of the monument, illuminating the far wall.

Wikipedia: New Grange

Hearst's New York Journal front page giving a biased, pro-war account of the explosion on the U.S.S. Maine (Wikipedia)

By the end of the 19th century, Cuba had long been seen as a potential acquisition for the expanding United States. By the 1860s, Cuba was importing many of their goods from the United States, who purchased most of the sugar that the island produced. Several attempts to purchase the island from Spain were aborted due to shifting political fortunes within the U.S. Large American companies had a significant financial interest in lowering import tariffs on the sugar, while at the same time the mindset of “Manifest Destiny” – the drive to expand the U.S. throughout the Western Hemisphere – was beginning to take hold.

Enter the media. Beginning in the 1890s, William Randolph Hearst, Joseph Pullitzer, and other members of the media began to conjure and over-report ‘attrocities’ that they claimed had been perpetrated by the Spanish Empire, which was now in steep decline. During this time, Hearst’s New York Journal and Pullitzer’s New York World entered into a fight for readership. They began to employ strategies to gain readership that would later be called “Yellow Journalism”. This included publishing morality plays, showing “nudity” (or the closest Victorian equivalent), and sensational political articles about sometimes fabricated scandals.

During the 1890s, Cuba began a struggle for independence against Spain. Hearst and others could see the potential for readership in the headlines. At one point, World correspondent as James Creelman wrote in his log, he sent a message from Cuba to Hearst saying “There will be no war.” Hearst replied, “Please remain. You furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war.”

Later, the U.S. sent a dreadnought, the U.S.S. Maine to Havana to guard American interests as hostilities broke out there. It sank, likely the result of an internal boiler explosion, but Hearst’s headline was “MAINE EXPLOSION CAUSED BY BOMB OR TORPEDO”. Pullitzer’s Journal screamed, “DESTRUCTION OF THE WAR SHIP MAINE WAS THE WORK OF AN ENEMY” above an illustration of a terrible explosion splitting the ship in two pieces. The headlines helped to begin the Spanish-American War.

Three years later, Ambrose Bierce claimed that Hearst’s reporting led Leon Czolgosz to shoot President McKinley. These claims devastated Hearst’s hopes to become president himself, but he denied it to be the case.

Later, in 1941, Frank Luther Mott gave a description of signs of “Yellow Journalism”:

1. scare headlines in huge print, often of minor news
2. lavish use of pictures, or imaginary drawings
3. use of faked interviews, misleading headlines, pseudo-science, and a parade of false learning from so-called experts
4. emphasis on full-color Sunday supplements, usually with comic strips
5. dramatic sympathy with the “underdog” against the system.

How many are still in use today?

Wikipedia: Yellow Journalism

Newsboys selling newspapers on the Brooklyn Bridge, 1908 (Lewis W. Hine, via Wikipedia)

In 1898, in an attempt to boost earnings from the increase in sales brought on by the onset of the Spanish American War, newspaper publishers raised the price of a bundle of newspapers 20%, from 50¢ to 60¢. While it does not seem like a very steep price today, the price increase made it very difficult for newsboys to purchase bundles for distribution because many of the boys who sold newspapers were poor and sometimes homeless. Wages were already low and most newsboys earned only about 30¢ per day.

Because the price increase made it difficult for newsboys to earn a living, they went on strike. This was the Newsboy Strike of 1899. They refused to sell newspapers owned by Joseph Pullitzer and William Randolph Hearst. The strike had immediate effect as Pullitzer’s New York World newspaper circulation dropped by two-thirds. After two weeks, the newspapers began distributing their papers at 50¢ per bundle once again.

Do not feel too sorry for William Randolph Hearst. He actually helped to start the Spanish American War. See how in tomorrow’s Pseudo-random Wiki-link.

Wikipedia: Newsboy Strike of 1899

Cherenkov Radiation in the Reed Research Reactor (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission)

Light travels at a constant speed, roughly 3.0×108 m/s. But when light travels through a material such as glass or plastic, it has a lower effective speed because the photon interacts with the electric fields of atoms an molecules along the way through a number of quantum mechanical effects. When a high energy charged particle such as an electron travels through a dielectric material (a material that contains molecules that can be polarized) at a velocity higher than that of the effective speed of light, it creates Cherenkov Radiation, resulting in a bluish glow of light. This happens because the electromagnetic field of the electron causes a slight and temporary polarization of the molecules in the surrounding medium. This distorts the electric fields of the molecules, which return to their original shape after the electron passes. The rebound in the molecule creates a new electromagnetic wave (light). Nuclear reactors typically emit such high energy electrons, so it is possible to see in the image of a nuclear reactor here.

Wikipedia: Cherenkov Radiation

Thousands of workers protest in the Wisconsin State Capitol (Wikipedia)

Nearly a month ago, a Tea Party governor who was elected on a tidal wave of corporate money that was legalized by the Citizens United Supreme Court decision took power in Wisconsin. Governor Scott Walker began work on a billionaire-supported regressive agenda in a state long known for its progressive stances on labor and human rights. Once people realized what was happening, they took action and while the first bill got through, efforts to remove the Governor and the Legislators who are responsible are progressing rapidly. The protests are the largest ever seen in Wisconsin and they continue to grow in size. At stake are the right to vote, the right to bargain for wages without a power differential between the worker and the management, the public maintaining control over the infrastructure that it built and maintaining a high quality of life, health and education within the state.

Great work so far everyone. Keep it going!

Wikipedia: 2011 Wisconsin Protests

Minneapolis Truckers' Strike of 1934 (Minnesota Historical Society)

Minneapolis had been a non-union city because business leaders had kept the unions at bay through the Citizens Alliance, a populist sounding group of business leaders and supportive lackeys who served to enhance the power of millionaire plutocrats – the Tea Party of today. The excesses of industry had bought about the Great Depression and by the time the economy had ebbed to the depths of those in 1934, unions were even gaining strength in Minneapolis. During the month of May that year, over 3,000 truckers began a strike that crippled transport of goods in the hub of Minneapolis. They were led by a local Trotskyist group. Only certain farmers were allowed to transport food into town and the strikers had shut down most markets. At one point in July police shot to kill, taking aim at peaceful picketers and the governor declared martial law. The National Guard raided the strike headquarters but the protesters retook control the next day. By August 14th, the military was shipping goods in and out of town but the strike continued until August 21st, when the union won each of its major demands. After the strike, more unions began to organize in Minneapolis and across the country.
Wikipedia: Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934